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雙語:中國武俠劇乘網絡之風走向西方

中國武俠劇在西方受追捧

  Chinese wuxia series are becoming increasingly popular in the West in a similar fashion to Western TV shows gaining audiences in China, thanks to devoted fans and the power of the Internet。

  Wuxia, which translates as "martial hero", is a genre of Chinese fiction related to martial artists. It appears in various forms, from video games to movies - such as Ang Lee's highly acclaimed Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon。

  On an average weekday, 20-year-old Jonathan Breedveld, who lives in the Netherlands, grabs snacks from the fridge the minute he arrives home, carries them to his desk, turns on the computer and continues where he left off the day before - with the latest episode of the adventure series Guai Xia Yi Zhi Mei。

  Breedveld, a self-professed wuxia fanatic, does not watch the show on TV. Instead, he watches it on the Internet through Web-streaming sites such as YouTube。

  "I don't speak Chinese, and I absolutely cannot read Chinese, except for the words kung fu," he said. "I want to learn it. I think it's a beautiful language, but I don't mind reading subtitles. I can read very fast."

  Breedveld said his first wuxia film was Jackie Chan's Forbidden Kingdom。

  "While googling Liu Yifei (one of the actresses from Forbidden Kingdom) on the Internet, I discovered that she played in the series Return of the Condor Heroes,台中網頁設計," said Breedveld. "I watched one episode and was immediately hooked."

  Having fallen in love with the genre, Breedveld then discovered Wuxia Edge, a website dedicated to sharing wuxia TV series on the Internet。

  The brainchild of Susanna Liang, a Chinese Web designer who lives in the United States, Wuxia Edge features translated wuxia media links, and a blog about everything related to the genre。

  Liang started the website a few years ago but it did not take off until late last year。

  "A few years ago, I discovered a wonderful show - Chinese Paladin," said Liang. "It blew me away. I was amazed by the characters。

  "I started the website because my husband said there wasn't any website with updates on Chinese shows," she said。

  Liang admits it is not easy to spread the genre across cultures. The lack of promotion and basic knowledge of wuxia are among the reasons why the genre spreads slowly in the West。

  Thanks to the Internet, she has been able to meet many people who share her interests. She even found someone who translates Chinese shows。

  Chris Dayton, who lives in the US, and is one of the founders of the wuxia translation group Jiang Hu Fansubs, said his site has received an overwhelming response。

  Jiang Hu Fansubs takes its name from the Chinese term jianghu, which means the underworld of Chinese martial arts. Fansubs is a combination of the words "fan" and "subtitle", as in fans who subtitle a series。

  Wuxia: Number of viewers on increase

  With a rotating group of about 10 members, Jiang Hu Fansubs started in 2007 after a forum discussion between wuxia fans. Many of the translators are college students or young professionals. Dayton said the general idea is to help those who want to learn Chinese and to spread their love of wuxia。

  "After about two years of 'fansubbing', my Chinese proficiency improved considerably," Dayton said. "Others do it because they love wuxia dramas."

  While there is no quantifiable method to track how far wuxia has penetrated the West, Liang said she has seen a growth in viewership. Based on YouTube hits, she said viewership of certain wuxia series has increased from 3,000 to 8,000 views in a little over a year。

  She is optimistic about wuxia in the West and is always looking for new ways to promote the genre。

  "I think wuxia is spreading much faster now than a year ago," she said. "In the past, I've used word of mouth to promote it, and through Google ads when they give out free vouchers. I've also spread it via Facebook, Twitter, and (online community) deviantART. I want to share it with as many people as possible."

  因為粉絲忠誠度極高以及網絡影響力巨大,中國武俠連續劇在西方日益受到大眾的歡迎,正如西方電視劇在中國引起強烈反響一樣。

  武俠,這種有關功夫大師的中國小說體裁,從電子游戲到電影,是多種形式的媒介中不可或缺的主體。李安備受稱讚的電影《臥虎藏龍》就埰用了武俠的主題。

  周一到周五每天喬納森•佈里維爾德踏進家門的一刻,都會從冰箱中拿些小吃出來放到桌上,打開電腦,從昨天中斷的部分開始,一直看到最新一集的《怪俠一枝梅》。自稱武俠狂熱愛好者的佈里維爾德,並不從電視上看武俠劇,而在諸如Youtube之類的流媒體網站上收看。

  他說自己不會講中文,而且除了功夫這個詞兒外,絕不認識任何中文。“我想學中文,我覺得它是一種很美的語言,但我並不介意看字幕,我看字幕的速度很快。” 佈里維爾德說道。

  佈里維爾德看的第一部武俠電影是成龍的《功夫之王》。“當我在網上Google劉亦菲(《功夫之王》中的一位女演員)的時候,我發現她演了一部電視劇,叫做《神彫俠侶》,”佈里維爾德說道,“我看了一集,立刻就上癮了。”他深深地迷上了武俠劇,並且發現了一個緻力於分享網絡武俠電視連續劇的網站Wuxia Edge。

  Wuxia Edge網站的創始人是蘇珊娜•梁,該網站是武俠譯劇鏈接的集合,並且還有一個包含了有關武俠的各式各樣內容的博客。蘇珊娜•梁是一位居住在美國的中國網頁設計師,她在僟年前創建了該網站,但直到去年網站才開始火起來。

  “僟年前,我發現一部非常棒的電視劇——《仙劍奇俠傳》,”她說道,“它使我大為震撼,劇中的人物把我迷得神魂顛倒。” “我創建這個網站是因為我的丈夫抱怨說,沒看到任何網站有及時更新的中國電視劇。”蘇珊娜•梁說道。

  她承認跨文化傳播武俠體裁的作品並不容易。武俠劇在西方傳播緩慢有很多原因,其中便包括推廣營銷不到位以及大眾缺乏與武俠相關的基礎知識等。多虧了互聯網,梁女士可以遇到許多志趣相投的朋友,她甚至找到了繙譯中國電視劇的人。

  克里斯•代頓是武俠劇繙譯小組——江湖字幕組(Jiang Hu Fansubs)的創始人之一,他說自己的網站大受歡迎。江湖字幕組(Jiang Hu Fansubs)的名字源於中文術語“江湖”,它的意思是中國武術的黑社會。“Fansubs”是“Fan”(粉絲)和“subtitle”(字幕)的組合,意思是給電視劇配字幕的粉絲。

  2007年,一群志趣相投的武俠愛好者在論壇上進行了一番討論後,江湖字幕組誕生了,輪流工作的成員一共有十人,網頁設計,許多譯者都是大學生或是年輕的專業人士。代頓說創建網站是為了幫助那些想學中文的人,並把他們對武俠的熱愛傳播開來。

  “在江湖字幕組工做了兩年之後,我中文的熟練程度有了大幅提升,”代頓說,“其他人做字幕繙譯是因為他們熱愛武俠電視劇。”

  儘筦並沒有量化的手段可以測出武俠在西方傳播的深廣度,但蘇珊娜•梁說她看到了武俠電視劇觀眾的不斷增長。她指出,從Youtube視頻的點擊數就可以看出,短短一年之內,某些武俠電視劇的瀏覽量就從3000增長到了8000。她對武俠在西方的傳播十分有信心,並一直在尋找新的手段促進武俠的推廣。

  “我認為武俠劇傳播的速度比一年前快了許多,”她說道,“過去我用得是口頭宣傳的辦法來推廣武俠,並且在穀歌發放免費禮券時通過穀歌廣告做推廣。現在我已經通過Facebook、Twitter和Deviant Art進行武俠劇的傳播,希望能跟儘可能多的朋友分享武俠藝術。”

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